Nor Zalina Harun, Anizah Mohd Salleh


Malaysia is known as the largest exporter and second largest producer of world palm oil market. Despite such contributions, a huge amount of forest land has been supplanted by oil palm cultivation. This activity is considered as a major driver of deforestation, which contributes to three-quarters of tropical deforestation globally. Critiques suggest agroforestry systems as option to overcome the issues brought up by the monoculture system of oil palm cultivation. This study is directed to study plant composition and arrangement for agroforestry systems in oil palm smallholdings. Data were gathered using a qualitative approach involving 10 biggest oil palm Malay smallholdings at Kluang, Johor. The study reveals that arrangement involves triangular, double avenue, and boundary planting systems. Further analysis traced that these plant species and arrangement can be categorized into two main categories which are: (i) sustainable plant composition and arrangement, and (ii) unsustainable into sustainable plant composition and arrangement. The study concluded that the transformation of the monoculture system with low sustainability towards more sustainable farming practices of agroforestry systems can actually be achieved through five considerations identified as (i) crop component (ii) maturity of oil palm (iii) market values and demand (iv) belowground and aboveground interaction, and (v) diversification of plant composition and arrangement.


agroforestry, smallholdings, oil palm cultivation, sustainable agriculture

Full Text:



Ahmad Fauzi Puasa, & Huda Farhana Mohammad Muslim. (2006). The study of several agroforestry systems and land used options in Malaysia. In International Agroforestry Conference 2006: Harnessing the Benefits.

Ahmed Azhar Jaafar, Norman Kasiran, Suhaimi Muhammed, & Wan Hanisah Wan Ismail. (2008). Agroforestry practices in Malaysia - Integrating plantations crops with timber species. In International Plantation Industry Conference & Exhibition. Retrieved from Azhar et al.pdf

Conklin, H. C. (1957). Hanunoo agriculture. Unasylva, 11(4). Retrieved from Creswell, J. W. (2003). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative and mixed method approaches (2nd Ed.). London: SAGE Publication Ltd.

Dahlan Ismail, & Kamal Hisyam Abdul Wahab. (2014). Sustainability of cattle-crop plantations integrated production systems in Malaysia. International Journal of Development and Sustainability, 3(2), 252-260.

Department of Statistic Malaysia. (2010). Johor-Department of Statistic Malaysia (pp. 231-243). Retrieved from _Johor.pdf

Devendra, C. (2011). Integrated tree crops-ruminants systems in South East Asia: Advances in productivity enhancement and environmental sustainability. Asian-Australian Journal of Animal Sciences, 24(5), 587-602.

Elijido-Ten, E. (2007). Combining qualitative and quantitative methods in environmental accounting research. In 6th Australasian Conference on Social and Environmental Accounting Research (CSEAR). Sydney, Australia.

Faridah Ahmad. (2001). Sustainable agriculture system in Malaysia. In Regional Workshop on Integrated Plant Nutrition System (pp. 18-20). Bangkok. Retrieved from International Agroforestry Conference 2006ah.pdf

Hasnol Othman, Farawahida Mohamad Darus, & Zulkifli Hashim. (2012, June). Best management practices for oil palm cultivation on peat: Mucuna bracteata as ground cover crop. MPOB Information Series.

Kushairi A., Azman Ismail, & Esnan Ab Ghani. (2009). Industri sawit di Malaysia. In E. Ab Ghani & I. Omar (Eds.), Perusahaan Sawit di Malaysia-Satu Panduan. Malaysian Palm Oil Board.

Lee, Y. F., Chia, F. R., Anuar, M., Ong, R. C., & Ajik, M. (2005). The use of Laran and Binuang for forest plantations and intercropping with oil palm in Sabah. Sepilok Bulletin, 3, 1-13.

Norkaspi Khasim, Raja Zulkifli Raja Omar, Suboh Ismail, & Wahid Omar. (2009, June). Integration of tongkat Ali with oil palm. MPOB Information Series.

Nurul Ain Noor Rahman, Mohd Nazip Suratman, Abdul Rasip Abdul Ghani, & Tsan, F. Y. (2011). Karas (Aquilaria malaccensis) agroforestry system for sustainable land use. In Rehabilitation of Tropical Rainforest Ecosystems (pp. 401-407).

Rosli Awaludin. (2000, August). Systematic integration of cattle in oil palm. MPOB Information Series. Retrieved from /tot/tt96.pdf

Rosli Awaludin, & Shariffhuddin Hj. Masurni. (2003). Systematic beef cattle integration in oil palm plantation with emphasis on the utilization of undergrowth. Lakakarya Sistem Integrasi Kelapa Sawit-Sapi, 23-35.

Schutt, R. K. (2012). Investigating the social world. The process and practice of research (Seventh Ed.). Boston: SAGE Publication Ltd.

Smit, B., & Smithers, J. (1993). Sustainable agriculture: Interpretations, analyses and prospects. Canadian Journal of Regional Science, XVI(3), 499-524.

Suryanto, P., & Susila Putra, E. T. (2012). Traditional enrichment planting in agroforestry marginal land Gunung Kidul, Java, Indonesia. Journal of Sustainable Development, 5(2), 77-87.

Tapsir Serin, Alias Radam, Mad Nasir Shamsudin, & Zainalabidin Mohamed. (2008). The efficiency of beef cattle production: A case study in the target area of concentration in Johor, Malaysia. Economic and Technology Management Review, 3, 57-74.

Wong, C. C., & Moog, F. A. (2001). Forage, livestock and tree crop integration in Southeast Asia: Present position and future prospects. In 7th Meeting of the Regional Working Group on Grazing and Feed Resources. Indonesia. Retrieved from proceedings/manado/chap1.htm

Zeleza, T. (1993). A modern economic history of Africa. Nairobi: East African Educational Publishers Ltd.


  • There are currently no refbacks.