Solomon Dyachia Zakka, Ariva Sugandi Permana, M. Rafee Majid


This study analyses the spatial pattern of Kaduna City in Sub-Saharan region and its vicinity to ascertain its influence on urban interaction and implications towards carbon emission. It employed a questionnaire-based research for the collection of socio-economic, traffic and spatial data. Meanwhile, spatial data was derived in secondary form from relevant organizations. The study reveals a steady increase in the built-up areas which covered 17,121 hectares representing 53% of the total area of the city. It also identified a mono-centric land use pattern for the city. The interconnection between the city centre and the residential areas has resulted in high traffic volume during the morning and evening peak hours on working days. The study also found that carbon emission at points along major routes in the city ranges between 1169 to1884 ppm. Considering the present performance of the city, the study suggests to adopt traditional red-ocean strategies, which are maximizing the carbon sequestration through optimizing urban ecology while minimizing the need for motorized transport using urban planning principles.


Spatial pattern, emission, carbon sequestration, interconnectivity

Full Text:



Aderamo, A. J., & Atomode, T. I. (2012). Traffic congestion at road intersection in Ilorin, Nigeria. Australian Journal of Basics and Applied Sciences, 5(9), 1439-1448.

Angel, S., Chabaeva, A., Gitlin, L., Kraley, A., Parent, J., & Micah, P. (2005). The dynamics of global urban expansion. Washington DC: World Bank.

Aribigbola, A. (2008). Imroving urban land use planning and management in Nigeria: the case of Akure. Theoretical and Empirical Researches in Urban Management, 9(3), 1-14.

Badoe, D. A., & Miller, E. J. (2000). Transportation-land-use interaction: empirical findings in North America, and their implications for modeling. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 5(4), 235-263.

Bashiru, A. R. (2008). Analysis of intra-urban traffic problems in Nigeria: a study of Lagos metropolis. Indonesian Journal of Geography, 40(1). Doi: 10.22146/ijg.2246.

Brandes, U., MacCleery, R., Peterson, J., & Johnston, M. (2010). Land use and driving: the role compact development can play in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Washington, DC: Urban Land Institute.

Ewing, Bartholomew, K., Winkelman, S., Walters, J., Chen, D., McCann, B., & Goldberg, D. (2008). Growing cooler: the evidence on urban development and climate change. Washington, DC: Urban Land Institute.

Federal Government of Nigeria [FGN] (2007). Federal Government of Nigeria 2006 population census. Official gazatte (FGP 71/52007/2,500(OL24). Lagos: Government Press.

Frank, L. D. (2000). Land use and transportation interaction implications on public health and quality of life. Journal of Planning Education and Research, 20(1), 6-22.

Freire, M. (2013). Urbanization and green growth in Africa: green growth series report no. 1. Retrieved from http://www.greengrowthknowledge.org/resource/urbanization-and-green-growth-africa

Gupta, R. (2014). The pattern of urban land-use changes: A case study of the Indian cities. Environment and Urbanization Asia, 5(1), 83-104.

Keay, R., Onochie, C., & Stanfield, D. (1964). Nigerian trees. Ibadan, Nigeria: Federal Department of Forest Research.

Linard, C., Tatem, A. J., & Gilbert, M. (2013). Modelling spatial patterns of urban growth in Africa. Applied Geography, 44, 23-32.

OECD (2007). Managing urban traffic congestion. Paris: OECD.

Parah Konsult (2015). Land use development in Kaduna urban area (1980-2015). Zaria, Nigeria.

Permana, A. S., Abdul Aziz, N., & Ho, C. S. (2015). Land use, urban mobility and environment nexus: evidence from a developing city. Johor Bahru: UTM Press.

Permana, A. S., Perera, R., Abdul Aziz, N. A., & Ho, C. S. (2015). Corroborating the land use change as primary determinant of air quality degradation in a concentric city. International Journal of Built Environment and Sustainability. Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.11113/ijbes.v2.n2.60

Remi, A., Adegoke, A.-A. I., & Oyerinde, A. (2009). A study of the causes, effects and ameliorative measures of road traffic congestion in Lagos Metropolis. European Journal of Social Sciences, 11(1), 119-128.

Global Opportunity Network (2016). Global Opportunity Report 2016. Havik, Oslo.

Shaw, S.-L., & Xin, X. (2003). Integrated land use and transportation interaction: a temporal GIS exploratory data analysis approach. Journal of Transport Geography, 11(2), 103-115.

Smith, J. E., Heath, L. S., Skog, K. E., & Birdsey, R. A. (2006). Methods for calculating forest ecosystem and harvested carbon with standard estimates for forest types of the United States. Retrieved from https://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/22954

Stocker, T. F. (2014). Climate change 2013: the physical science basis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Ukpata, J. O., & Etika, A. A. (2012). Traffic congestion in major cities of Nigeria. International Journal of Engineering and Technology, 2(8), 1433-1438.

UNEP. (2012). The Emission Gap Report 2012. Nairobi: United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).


  • There are currently no refbacks.